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Uttar Pradesh’s O% Achievement In Rural Sanitation

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Highlights* Government has set target of full sanitation in rural India by 2022 under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan.
* Country-wide utilisation of sanitation funds only 20% in the first half of the current financial year.
* Only 16% schools in India have functional toilets.


Jairam Ramesh, India’s Union Minister For Rural Development, caused a stir recently when he said there are more temples than toilets in India.


He made it worse (some argued) by saying toilets at a groom’s home should be a pre-condition for marriage! Needless to add, perhaps, Mr Ramesh has additional charge of the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation.


India’s track record on sanitation is not uniformly good or bad. Data shows that states like Uttar Pradesh have performed particularly badly, often skewing the national average.


IndiaSpend’s Sourjya Bhowmick finds that despite receiving the highest share of central funds for sanitation in the last 5 years, UP did not construct a single new toilet in the last six months in either Anganwadis or local community centres or schools. .. And UP clocked just 3% in individual household latrines.


Incidentally, as on September 2012, at an all-India level, under the NBA programme, there were only 17% homes with latrines and only 12% of Anganwadis had latrines.


The Government has set a target of full sanitation in rural India by 2022. The initiative to do this is known as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) rechristened, incidentally, from Total Sanitation Campaign. Under the NBA, individual household latrines are provided for identified households Below Poverty Line (BPL) and Above Poverty Line (APL) within a Gram Panchayat (GP).


Let us look at the amount of central funds released for the programme during the last five years:


Table 1: Total Central Funds from 2008-09 to 2012-13


States Central Share Received

Top 5

Uttar Pradesh 1,024
Bihar 744
Madhya Pradesh 622
Assam 395
Orissa 302

Worst 5

Punjab 17
Kerala 38
Tamil Nadu 283
Himachal Pradesh 68
Uttarakhand 54
India 6,360


(Rs In Crore; source: tsc.gov.in)


The table highlights the states that received the highest and the lowest central share. The funding for the programme is shared by the centre and the states. The central share is 80% while the remaining 20% is borne by the states. Incidentally, in the case of individual household latrines, the household pays 16% out of the total cost of construction.


Now, let us look at the available funds and the utilisation percentage of these states for the financial year 2012-13 as on September 2012:


Table 2: Utilisation Rates


States Available funds including opening balance Utilisation % utilised

Top 5

Assam 122 48 39
Uttar Pradesh 224 81 36
Kerala 12 4 34
Madhya Pradesh 18 48 26
Bihar 384 97 25
Uttarakhand 19 4 24

Worst 5

Punjab 16 3 23
Tamil Nadu 84 16 20
Himachal Pradesh 25 4 17
Orissa 192 22 11
All India 2,652 541 20


(Rs in crore; source: tsc.gov.in)


Assam has the best utilisation percentage among all states followed by Uttar Pradesh. Incidentally, UP has been getting the most funds. Orissa is doing the worst in utilisation at this point. However, country-wide utilisation of funds stands at 20% in the first half of the financial year. It can safely be assumed that full utilisation for this block of funds may not be possible this year.


Table 3 gives an idea about the progress made in the domains of individual household latrines:


Table 3: Household Latrines


States Objective Achievement % achievement

Top 5

Himachal Pradesh 4,085 4,165 102
Kerala 0* 550 100
Uttarakhand 117,310 45,380 39
Bihar 1,244,691 436,473 35
Punjab 157,410 43,449 28

Worst 5

Madhya Pradesh 960,385 238,430 25
Tamil Nadu 713,436 164,234 23
Assam 774,711 111,532 14
Orissa 1,205,215 104,919 9
Uttar Pradesh 1,504,765 39,009 3
All India 12,379,809 2,094,020 17


(in numbers; *Kerala has no target; source:  tsc.gov.in)


Table 4 gives an idea about the progress made in Anganwadi toilets:


Table 4: Anganwadi Sanitation


States Objective Achievement % achievement

Top 5

Punjab 906 564 62
Orissa 2,141 857 40
Kerala 322 112 35
Tamil Nadu 1,579 443 28
Uttarakhand 91 18 20

Worst 5

Bihar 13,598 700 5
Madhya Pradesh 5,179 84 2
Assam 2,012 38 2
Himachal Pradesh 1,919 44 2
Uttar Pradesh 6309 0 0
All India 79,765 9,573 12


(in numbers; source: tsc.gov.in)


So, as on September 2012, the achievement percentage of individual household latrines at an all-India level stands at 17%… and worse is toilet construction in Anganwadis, which is only 12%. UP and Orissa have low achievement percentage of 3% and 9%, respectively, when it comes to household latrines. On the other hand, Kerala and Himachal Pradesh are doing well.


Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and Madhya Pradesh are performing badly on toilet constructions in Angandwadis. Himachal Pradesh, one of the lowest funded states, is also not doing well. Punjab, on the other hand, is doing well and looks like they will meet the target.


Another important factor in the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan is the construction of school toilets. Incidentally, news reports quoted Mr Ramesh saying recently that March 2013 should be the target to ensure that all schools have proper working toilets.  Let us take a look at the progress as of now:


Table 5: Status Of  School Toilets


States Objective Achievement % achievement

Top 5

Punjab 114 329 289
Kerala 17 15 88
Orissa 1,504 883 59
Tamil Nadu 2,979 949 32
Uttarakhand 468 86 18

Worst 5

Bihar 28,687 4,594 16
Himachal Pradesh 3,915 195 5
Madhya Pradesh 16,769 691 4
Assam 1,807 43 2
Uttar Pradesh 30,070 0 0
All India 162,376 25,327 16


(in numbers; source: tsc.gov.in)


Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Assam are the worst performers. Punjab and Kerala, on the other hand, are doing well. However, the overall achievement percentage stands at only 16%. Thus, the target of toilets in all schools by March 2013 will mean that 84% schools will have to be covered in just 5 months!

  1. Kasturi Shinde Reply

    October 29, 2012 at 7:43 am

    Nicely written article ..the numbers give us a clear pic ! Hatsoff to the efforts :)

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